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Friday, June 11, 2010

Where We Can Get Fresh Water ???

         Water is something very essential for every element of the living. Even according to experts, when on this earth there is no water, then an impossible existence of life on this earth. Although the vast majority of the earth's surface is covered by water, but not all existing water can be used as a source of life, especially for drinking water.
               Where is the best source of water to drink can get? River water? Rain water? sea water? water wells? ... Actually, according to research, the most pure water and H2O is the most likely elements of rain water. However, semerta not necessarily that any rain water yanng best, because it could be the water has been contaminated by the gases due to air pollution. Where dong hold water? Yup, the answer is ground water, or do we more often use the term well water. According to Prof. Sudarmadji, water quality is best in the face of this earth is due to the presence of ground water is deep in the ground, he will not be easily polluted as surface epidermis (danuau River, etc.). Percentage of ground water on earth is quite a bit which is only about 1%. Then, how do we to get it?
            To obtain the precious ground water, we must consider several factors prior include, among others ie geological conditions, meteorological conditions, geomorphology and other conditions. Geological conditions will determine the "container" of the ground water itself, in this case is the rock material. These meteorological conditions such as rainfall, which, from this rain is mostly ground water sources. And last is the condition that is associated with the geomorphological geomorphological processes that occurred that nantinnya will determine the position where the soil water potential was found.
              By paying attention to things, the places where the soil water potential is high enough in the alluvial plain, kolluvial plains, valleys between the hills, swamps behind, buried valleys, slope, basin, and others.
The engineering techniques to investigate the existence of this ground water, were:
1. Engineering Geophysics. The main purpose of the use of geophysical methods is a measure of the distance of the physical properties of the layers of rock beneath the earth's surface. Selanjutnyahasil measurements can be used as a reference for predicting the types of materials that can not be directly sampling. Geophysical methods have benefits for improving the efficiency and effectiveness in the context of subsurface exploration. Rule raw, these geophysical methods require the existence of vertical and horizontal variations of physical properties of rock layers beneath the surface of the earth. If there is unconformity (discontinuities) the physical properties of rock layers, logically there must be differences in geology.
2. geoelectric method. This method has the principle that electric current flowed to the bottom surface of the earth will be affected by the value of rock resistivity (resistivity) are varied. 
3. Magnetic Method. Field earth magnets are always fluctuate spatially and temporally. Changes in local field magnets can be caused by magnetic material beneath the earth's surface. sedimentary rocks generally have field magnetic fields smaller than the igneous and metamorphic. Furthermore, measurement of variations in field magnets  can be use to predict local changes in rock layers of aquifers.
4. Gravity Method. spatially Gravity is not the same but depending on the density (density) of subsurface composition. Density differences on some kind of composition, this rock is very small indeed, but with sensitive sensors that will be known and can be used to predict rock layer in the aquifer and the presence of groundwater. Nowadays many methods used to measure gravity subsurface geological structures such as determining the buried valley (burried valley) and the thickness of a confined aquifer. Even the existence of contamination in groundwater can be positioned precisely with this method.
5. Hole Drilling Method. This method is used to measure the physical properties of rock layers by entering into a specific sensor custom-made drill holes. Usually this method is used to identify the structure of rock formations and measure their parameters. (Sensors are commonly used to measure: water quality, porosity, and permeability). The advantages of this method compared to other geophysical methods that are operated from the surface is a parameter data terukurmempunyai accurate because the sensors close to almost all formations in the drill. 

Source: Adjie, Nugroho Tjahyo. 2009. Course Syllabus geohydrology. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Faculty of Geography
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